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History of the communication format

1970s

1974-1979
date title content and/or notes
May 1974 OCLC-MARC Distribution Service Specifications for Magnetic Tape Containing Catalog Records for Monographs and Serials, First edition

Described processing OCLC-MARC tapes.

Data set identifier: Z39.2-69MARC-OCLC.

Field 049 was present in the tape record only if the institution Sent the field before entering a Produce or Update command. If no field 049 was present in the tape record, the transaction was intended for the institution's default holding library.

July 1975   Field 049 codes changed from 3 to 4 characters.
August 1975   Field 040 changed from text to 3-character code.
March 1976 OCLC-MARC Distribution Service Specifications for Magnetic Tape Containing Catalog Records for Monographs and Serials, First edition, Revision Notice No. 1

Described Leader Bytes 18 (Descriptive Cataloging Form Code) and 22 (Transaction Type Code). To accommodate Leader Byte 18, OCLC moved the Local Status Code to Byte 22 and changed its name to Transaction Type Code. OCLC also defined a new Transaction Type Code: 50 for the All Produce.

These changes were effective for the weekly and biweekly tapes in March 1976 and for the monthly tapes in April 1976. A monthly tape contained records for a calendar month.

June 1976 Network Memorandum No. 11

Described additional tape service options effective July 1976.

Quarterly (13 weeks) and semiannual (26 weeks) production frequencies were added. The monthly frequency changed from a calendar month to a 4-week month.

The multi-institution tape option was not implemented beginning July 1976 for monthly and quarterly subscribers. For multi-institution subscribers, OCLC produced single institution tapes and charged subscribers as if they had received multi-institution tapes. This applied for the monthly tapes produced through December 19, 1976 and the quarterly tapes for July 6—October 3, 1976.

December 1976 OCLC-MARC Subscription Service Documentation, Second edition

Incorporated data for all the MARC formats. Each format was presented separately with control fields for all formats in one sequence and variable fields in another.

The data set identifier was changed to: Z39.2-71MARC-OCLC.

January 1977  

Changes announced in December 1976 were implemented.

The multi-institution tape option was implemented for quarterly and semiannual frequencies the week ending January 2, 1977 and for monthly (4-week) frequency the week ending January 16, 1977. The first multi-institution tapes produced were for the following periods:

Monthly:                   December 20, 1976—January 15, 1977

Quarterly:                 October 4—December 30, 1976

Semiannual:             July 6—December 30, 1976

All records on tape contained field 049 whether or not the field was Sent. This was a requirement for successful implementation of the multi-institution option.

May 1975

April 1978

 

During this period it was possible to Produce or Update with Unknown (rather than a control number) in the OCLC control number position of the fixed field display.

This occurred when a user entered a reformat command immediately after saving a record with New in the control number position. The record displayed after the reformat command was no longer associated with the saved record. Unknown appeared in the control number position. (Technical Bulletin 39, May 1978).

When a user entered Produce or Update on an Unknown record, the system assigned a control number to the record. The number #3741824 was the same for all records. Records were not added to the Online Union Catalog, but were recorded on the daily journal tapes and thereby selected for tape subscriptions. Field 001 appeared as ocl73741824.

If you encounter ocl73741824 during processing of the tapes:

The associated record probably represents Produce or Update on an Unknown since few institutions have attached their holdings to the Online Union Catalog record #3741824.

A later occurrence of the number does not necessarily replace an earlier one since a different record may be associated with each numeric occurrence.

April 1978 OCLC-MARC Subscription Service Documentation, Third edition

Presented information regarding the communication format in a composite tabular form.

This edition was used to process RETROARC tapes. RETOARC tape production began in September 1979 and ended in December 1980.

September 1979 Technical Bulletin 80 Described the implementation of subfields ‡l and ‡o in field 049 and field 949 for local processing of tapes.

1980s

1980
date title content and/or notes
June 1980   Bytes 12—17 were validated in field 001 to record the date of record use (effective for records used on or after June 30, 1980). Before June 30, the date of record use was not recorded.
1981
date title content and/or notes
January 1981 OCLC-MARC Subscription Service Documentation, Fourth edition  
June 1981   The control number identifier in 001 was changed to accommodate an 8-digit OCLC Control Number. For tapes produced before June 28, 1981, the control number identifier is ocl7 in bytes 0—3. For tapes produced on and after June 28, 1981, the identifier is ocm in bytes 0—2.
July 1981 Memo and Technical Bulletin 107  
August 1981 Memo and Technical Bulletins 108 and 109  
August 1981   Field 007 changed. Before this date field 007 was valid for only audiovisual materials. After August 30, 1981, the generic tree 007 was valid in all formats.
October 1981 OCLC-MARC Subscription Service Documentation, Fourth edition, Revision Notice No. 1 Incorporated the changes announced in Technical Bulletins 107, 108, 109, and 112. (Technical Bulletin 112 was not distributed specifically to OCLC-MARC tape subscribers.) A replacement page for the field 001 change was included.
December 1981 OCLC-MARC Subscription Service Documentation, Fourth edition, Revision Notice No. 2 Incorporated the changes announced in Revision Notice No. 1.
1982
date title content and/or notes
1982   During 1982, field 010 (subfield ‡z) was copied to tape incorrectly. This occurred when there was a subfield ‡z but no subfield ‡a. The data from subfield ‡z could not be reconstructed from data on the tape.
March 1982 OCLC-MARC Subscription Service Documentation, Fourth edition, Revision Notice No. 3 Incorporated the changes announced in Technical Bulletin 115, Revised.
October 1982 OCLC-MARC Subscription Service Documentation, Fourth edition, Revision Notice No. 4 Described changes based on Update 4 (September 1981) to MARC Formats for Bibliographic Data. Appendixes G and H were issued.
1983
date title content and/or notes
April 1983 OCLC-MARC Subscription Service Documentation, Fourth edition, Revision Notice No. 5 Described the movement of the date of latest transaction from field 001 to new field 005.
June 1983   The date of the latest transaction moved from field 001 to field 005. This change affected all tapes produced after June 26, 1983.
December 1983 OCLC-MARC Subscription Service Documentation, Fourth edition, Revision Notice No. 6 Described changes based on Updates 5, 6, and 7 to MARC Formats for Bibliographic Data and in Revision Notice No. 5.
1984
date title content and/or notes
March 1984 OCLC-MARC Subscription Service Documentation, Fourth edition, Revision Notice No. 7 Described changes based on Update 8 to MARC Formats for Bibliographic Data.
September 1984 OCLC-MARC Tape Format, Fifth edition

Name change resulted from the inclusion of Serials Union List tapes.

Described changes to the machine-readable data files format (renamed computer files) and to the manuscripts format (renamed archive and manuscript control).

1985
date title content and/or notes
April 1985 OCLC-MARC Tape Format, Fifth edition, Revision No. 1 Described changes to developing holdings tape alterations.
April 1985   Codes invalidated in September 1984 were deleted.
July 1985 Tape Format Change Notice No. 1

New series produced designed to describe changes to be made to Tape Format.

Described changes based on Updates 9, 10, and 11 to MARC Formats for Bibliographic Data.

September 1985   Changes announced in July 1985 were implemented. Invalid codes were not deleted.
October 1985   Codes invalidated in September 1985 were deleted.
November 1985 OCLC-MARC Tape Format, Fifth edition, Revision No. 2 Incorporated changes announced in Tape Format Change Notice No. 1.
1986
date title content and/or notes
February 1986 Tape Format Change Notice No. 2 Described Chinese, Japanese, and Korean (OCLC CJK350) characters on tapes. CJK characters appear in the new field 880 that is linked to other fields by the new subfield ‡6.
May 1986   The first records containing Chinese, Japanese, and Korean characters in the CJK350 character set were entered into the Online Union Catalog. The CJK350 character set is described.
June 1986 Tape Format Change Notice No. 3 Described changes based on Update 12 to MARC Formats for Bibliographic Data.
July 1986   Changes announced in June 1986 were implemented. Some invalidated codes were deleted.
September 1986 OCLC-MARC Tape Format, Fifth edition, Revision No. 3 Described changes announced in Tape Format Change Notices Nos. 2 and 3 and based on Update No. 13 to MARC Formats for Bibliographic Data.
December 1986   The first indicator value 0 in field 520 was validated in all formats. Field 850 was made valid for Books, Audiovisual Media, Archive and Manuscripts Control, Scores, Recordings, and Computer Files. OCLC made the fields valid before their announcement to accommodate records coming to OCLC on tape. The changes were later announced in Tape Format Change Notice No. 4.

December 1986

April 1987

  Between December 1986 and April 1987, field 850 may appear in tapes for non-serial records. For tapes created outside that period and for all serial records, field 850 appears only on tapes sent to the Library of Congress.
1987
date title content and/or notes

December 1986

April 1987

  Between December 1986 and April 1987, field 850 may appear in tapes for non-serial records. For tapes created outside that period and for all serial records, field 850 appears only on tapes sent to the Library of Congress.
February 1987 Tape Format Change Notice No. 4 Described changes based on Update 14 to MARC Formats for Bibliographic Data.
April 1987   Changes announced in February 1987 were implemented. No invalidated codes were deleted.
1988
date title content and/or notes
March 1988 Tape Format Change Notice No. 5 Described changes based on Update 15 to MARC Formats for Bibliographic Data.
April 1988   Changes announced in March 1988 were implemented.
October 1988 Tape Format Change Notice No. 6 Described changes based on USMARC Format for Bibliographic Data: Including Guidelines for Content Designation.
November 1988 Tape Format Change Notice No. 7 Described changes based on a subject heading correction project.
December 1988   Changes announced in October and November 1988 were implemented.
1989
date title content and/or notes
March 1989 Tape Format Change Notice No. 8 Described changes based on Update 1 to USMARC Format for Bibliographic Data: Including Guidelines for Content Designation.
June 1989   Changes announced in March 1989 were implemented.
July 1989 OCLC-MARC Tape Format, Second edition Incorporated changes announced in Tape Format Change Notices Nos. 4—7 and in several Technical Bulletins.
December 1989 OCLC-MARC Tape Format, Second edition, Revision No. 1 Incorporated changes announced in Tape Format Change Notice No. 8.

1990s

1990
date title content and/or notes
April 1990 Tape Format Change Notice No. 9 Described changes based on Update 2 to USMARC Format for Bibliographic Data: Including Guidelines for Content Designation.
June 1990   Changes announced in April 1990 were implemented.
November 1990 OCLC-MARC Tape and Export Record Formats

Name change.

Incorporated changes announced in Tape Format Change Notice No. 9 and information regarding Authority Data.

1991
date title content and/or notes
June 1991 Tape and Export Record Formats Change Notice No. 1 Described changes based on Update 3 to USMARC Format for Bibliographic Data: Including Guidelines for Content Designation.
September 1991   Changes announced in June 1991 were implemented.
1992
date title content and/or notes
July 1992 Tape and Export Record Formats Change Notice No. 2 Described changes based on Updates 4 to USMARC Format for Bibliographic Data: Including Guidelines for Content Designation and USMARC Format for Authority Data.
October 1992   Changes announced in July 1992 were implemented.
1993
date title content and/or notes
November 1993 OCLC-MARC Tape and Export Formats, Revision 1 Incorporated changes announced in Tape and Export Record Formats Change Notice Nos. 1 and 2.
1994
date title content and/or notes
October 1994 Tap and Export Record Formats Change Notice No. 3 Described changes pertinent to the implementation of PromptCat.
November 1994 Tap and Export Record Formats Change Notice No. 4 Described changes in OCLC-MARC tape and record formats pertinent to the implementation of Format Integration Phase 1.
1995
date title content and/or notes
January 1995   Changes announced in November 1994 were implemented.
April 1995   Changes announced in October 1994 (Tape and Export Record Formats Change Notice No. 3) were implemented.
October 1995 Tap and Export Record Formats Change Notice No. 5 Described Harvard database record specifications.
November 1995   Changes announced in October 1995 were implemented.
1996
date title content and/or notes
January 1996 Tap and Export Record Formats Change Notice No. 6 Described changes in OCLC-MARC tape and record formats pertinent to the implementation of Format Integration Phase 2.
March 1996   Changes announced in January 1996 were implemented.
May 1996 Tap and Export Record Formats Change Notice No. 7 Decribed OCLC CatCD for Windows original bibliographic cataloging record specifications.
May 1996   Changes announced in May 1996 were implemented.
 
1998
date title content and/or notes
September 1998 Tap and Export Record Formats Change Notice No. 8 Described changes based on Updates 1, 2, and 3 to USMARC Format for Bibliographic Data.
October 1998   Changes announced in September 1998were implemented.
1999
date title content and/or notes
May 1999 Tap and Export Record Formats Change Notice No. 9 Described changes in OCLC bibliographic records pertinent to the implementation of field 994.
June 1999   Changes announced in May 1999 were implemented.

2000s

2000
date title content and/or notes
January 2000   Tape and Export Record Formats Change Notice Series discontinued.
March 2000 Technical Bulletin 236 Described changes based on Updates 1, 2, and 3 to USMARC Format for Bibliographic DataMARC 21 Format for Bibliographic Data, and USMARC Code List documents.
April, May, and December 2000   Changes announced in March 2000 were implemented.
May 2000 Technical Bulletin 238 Described the OCLC Arabic Cataloging Pilot project and the addition of Arabic data to records in WorldCat (the OCLC Online Union Catalog).
June 2000   Changes announced in May 2000 were implemented.
June 2000 Technical Bulletin 239 Described how the implementation of the Cooperative Online Resource Catalog (CORC) affects the OCLC Cataloging service, OCLC-MARC records, and other OCLC services.
July 2000   Changes announced in June 2000 were implemented.
August 2000 Technical Bulletin 237

Described the coding change for multiple-surname headings as a result of changes to MARC 21 Format for Bibliographic Data and USMARC Format for Authority Data.

 Note: Bibliographic records in WorldCat were corrected through database scans completed in April 2000. Authority records were corrected in the first half of 2000.

August 2000 Technical Bulletin 240 Described the OCLC conversion of transliterated Chinese characters in OCLC-MARC records from the Wade-Giles to the pinyin system. Also defined the conversion markers for bibliographic records (field 987, Local Romanization/Conversion History) and for authority records (field 008/07, Romanization scheme).
August, September, and October 2000   Changes announced in August 2000 were implemented.
November 2000 Technical Bulletin 241 Described the changes to the national library control number and the effects on OCLC products and services.
December 2000   Changes announced in November 2000 were implemented.
2001
date title content and/or notes
July 2001 Technical Bulletin 244 Described changes based on Update 1 to MARC 21 Format for Bibliographic Data, Update 1 to MARC 21 Format for Holdings Data, Update 1 to MARC 21 Format for Authority Data, and MARC Code List documents.
August 2001   Changes announced in July 2001 were implemented.
2002
date title content and/or notes
November 2002 Technical Bulletin 247 Described changes based on Update 2 to MARC 21 Format for Bibliographic Data, MARC 21 Bibliographic and Authority New Data Elements Technical Notice, and MARC Code List Technical Notices and Updates.
December 2002   Changes announced in November 2002 were implemented.
December 2002   Incorporated tape cartridge specifications into Chapter 6.
2003
date title content and/or notes
April 2003 Technical Bulletin 249 Described changes based on Update 3 to MARC 21 Format for Bibliographic Data, Update 3 to MARC 21 Format for Authority Data, and MARC Code List Technical Notices.
May 2003   Changes announced in April 2003 were implemented.
 
 
2006
date title content and/or notes
May 2006 Technical Bulletin 252 Described changes based on Updates 2, 3, 4, and 5 to MARC 21 Format for Bibliographic Data, Updates 4 and 5 to MARC 21 Format for Authority Data, and MARC Code List Technical Notices.
June 2006   Changes announced in May 2006 were implemented.
September 2006 Technical Bulletin 253 Described expansion of ISBN from ten to thirteen digits, the expansion of the OCLC number from eight to nine digits, and a change to the 007 field.
November 2006   Changes announced in September 2006 were implemented.
2007
date title content and/or notes
May 2007 Technical Bulletin 254 Described changes based on Update 6 to MARC 21 Format for Bibliographic Dataand MARC Code List Technical Notices, the changes needed to integrate the RLG Union Catalog into WorldCat, especially institution records, and other changes.
May 2007   Changes announced in May 2007 were implemented.
2008
date title content and/or notes
May 2008 Technical Bulletin 255 Described changes based on Update 7 to MARC 21 Format for Bibliographic Data, Update 7 to MARC 21 Format for Authority Data, Update 7 to MARC 21 Format for Holdings Data, changes derived from ISO 639 Joint Advisory Committee announcements, and MARC Code List Technical Notices.
June 2008   Changes announced in May 2008 were implemented.
July 2008 Technical Bulletin 256 Describes the OCLC guidelines for abbreviated-level (encoding-level 3) records.
July 2008   Changes announced in July 2008 were implemented.
2009
date title content and/or notes
July 2009 Technical Bulletin 257 Describes changes based on Updates 8 and 9 to MARC 21 Format for Bibliographic Data, Updates 8 and 9 to MARC 21 Format for Authority Data, Updates 8 and 9 to MARC 21 Format for Holdings Data, changes derived from ISO 169 Joint Advisory Committee announcements, and MARC Code List Technical Notices.
July 2009   Changes announced in July 2009 were implemented.
2010
date title content and/or notes
May 2010 Technical Bulletin 258 Describes changes based on Updates 10 and 11 to MARC 21 Format for Bibliographic Data, Updates 10 and 11 to MARC 21 Format for Authority Data, Update 10 to MARC 21 Format for Holdings Data, changes derived from ISO 169 Joint Advisory Committee announcements, and MARC Code List Technical Notices.
May 2010   Changes announced in May 2010 were implemented.
2011
date title content and/or notes
August 2011 Technical Bulletin 260 Describes changes based on Update 12 to MARC 21 Format for Bibliographic Data, Update 12 to MARC 21 Format for Authority Data, Update 12 to MARC 21 Format for Holdings Data, and MARC Code List Technical Notices.
August 2011   Changes announced in August 2011 were implemented.
2012
date title content and/or notes
May 2012 Technical Bulletin 261 Describes changes based on Updates 13 and 14 to MARC 21 Format for Bibliographic Data, Updates 13 and 14 to MARC 21 Format for Authority Data, Updates 13 and 14 to MARC 21 Format for Holdings Data, and MARC Code List Technical Notices.
2013
date title content and/or notes
June 2013 Technical Bulletin 262 Describes changes based on Update 15 to MARC 21 Format for Bibliographic Data, Update 15 to MARC 21 Format for Authority Data, Update 15 to MARC 21 Format for Holdings Data, and MARC Code List Technical Notices.
2014
date title content and/or notes
May 2014 Technical Bulletin 263 Describes changes based on Update 16 to MARC 21 Format for Bibliographic Data and MARC Code List Technical Notices.
August 2014 Technical Bulletin 264 Describes changes based on Updates 16, 17, and 18 to MARC 21 Format for Bibliographic Data, Updates 16, 17, and 18 to MARC 21 Format for Authority Data, Updates 16, 17, and 18 to MARC 21 Format for Holdings Data, and MARC Code List Technical Notices.
2015
date title content and/or notes
July 2015 Technical Bulletin 265 Describes changes based on Updates 19 and 20 to MARC 21 Format for Bibliographic Data, Updates 19 and 20 to MARC 21 Format for Authority Data, Updates 19 and 20 to MARC 21 Format for Holdings Data, and MARC Code List Technical Notices.
2016
date title content and/or notes
July 2016   Describes changes based on Updates 21 and 22 to MARC 21 Format for Bibliographic Data, Updates 21 and 22 to MARC 21 Format for Authority Data, Updates 21 and 22 to MARC 21 Format for Holdings Data, and MARC Code List Technical Notices.
August 2016 Technical Bulletin 266 Changes announced in July 2016 were implemented.

 

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